Archive for category Crafting

Lemongrass Rhodinol for Bacteria and Fungus

Rhodinol is a term used to describe Citronellol and Geraniol- when they exist together. There are quite a few essential oils which contain rhodinol.

Essential Oils of Geranium, Rose, and a revolutionary new genotype of Lemongrass- are some of the examples- see the table below for a typical GC.

As a grower of bamboo, as well as essential oil crops- I, accidentally discovered an interesting application of rhodinol lemongrass for treating bamboo to protect it against pathogens and fungus, besides imparting a beautiful rosy aromatic note to our bamboo products.

Last few years, I have been experimenting with various oils- I found Oils of Rose and Geranium too expensive for my applications- though they also contain geraniol and citronellol in sizable proportions. I found Citral Rich lemongrass prone to oxidation, and very corrosive- The workers would complain of burning sensation- and hence shelved it too.

Our trials with Rhodinol Rich lemongrass turned out to be a success- and hence we have developed a curing process, where in we add Rhodinol Rich Lemongrass Oil to an oleo-thermal medium. Perhaps it's the anti- pest and anti-fungal and anti-bacterial properties of Citronellol and Geraniol (collectively called Rhodinol)- which get imbibed into the bamboo fiber that saves the bamboo from attack.

My interest in essential oils is multi-pronged-

a) -as a farmer and a distiller- our main crops are mints and rhodinol rich lemongrass

b) -as a raw material to treat and cure bamboo- bamboo handicrafts are a product of commerce for us.

c) -as a healing agent. Most civilizations have evolved methods of healing- into specialized activities. In India- ayurved is practiced - which uses dried plants- also called crude drugs. Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry are related sciences. The West, especially the Americas, have evolved aromatherapy as a healing procedure. 

In this regard, I found the following write ups on Rhodinol Lemongrass by some renowned names in aromatherapy very interesting.

http://www.aromahead.com/blog/2010/10/08/a-great-gentle-lemongrass-chemotype/

http://www.aromahead.com/blog/2011/07/22/lemongrass-that-does-not-irritate-your-skin-really/

http://www.whitelotusblog.com/2011/04/lemongrasscymbopogon-citratus-essential.html

https://www.aromatics.com/products/essential-oils/lemongrass-rhodinol-rich-india

https://www.facebook.com/aromatherapyoils/posts/136220063090506

Typical GC charts of geranium, rose and rhodinol rich lemongrass oils

  geranium-bourbon geranium-india Rose-Bulgaria Rhodinol lemongrass
citronellol 21.38 23.59 including nerol 38.22 30
citronellyl butyrate 1.26      
citronellyl formate 8.37 4.19    
geraniol 17.45 23 14.41 45
geranyl acetate 0.39 0.29 0.74  
geranyl butyrate 1.04      
geranyl formate 7.55 2.66 0.06  
geranyl tiglate 1.34 1.61    
guaia-6,9-diene 3.9 0.09    
linalool 12.9 16.32 3.14  
menthone 1.5 0.54    
menthone 7.2 0.54    
phenethyl tiglate 0.43 0.77    
rose oxide 0.21 0.11 e 1.39 0.15
    0.74 z 0.32 0.02

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Curing Bamboo

Our attempts to switch over to agroforestry of bamboo to substitute wood for our handicrafts took me to , and Bangalore, where I had the pleasure of meeting some rare breed of "bamboo connoisseurs". The 5 day seminar offered insights into novel methods of bamboo preservation and product development.

To a layman, bamboo epitomizes "a poor mans timber"- an ambivalent "pole"- being utilized in almost all rural activities- may it be construction, fencing, fishing or agriculture.

Why preserve bamboos?
Natural Untreated Bamboos are classified as GRADE 3 timber material. However, when properly treated it turns out be a very fine timber, in ways, stronger than steel and ALL HARDWOODS. In its treated state- Bamboo is classified as GRADE 1 Timber- along with Sagwan and Sal. Thus, treating bamboo becomes a necessity. 

These techniques include non-chemical and chemical methods, some of which I have already discussed in one of my earlier blogs.

Sap Displacement, smoking, white-washing, storage in water.
Chemical treatment methods (CCA), Boric acid / Borax

Treatment in boiling linseed oil / oleo-thermal process-
I am intrigued by the simplicity and functionality of this process. Where-as, other processes may involve a time span of at least a few months, from the time of harvest to a fully dried and treated bamboo, the oil process renders a ready/treated and duly de-hydrated and de-starched bamboo, in a matter of hours!!! I am trying out various combinations- to study the costs involved, as well as to minimize chemical deterioration and the associated fire hazards
.

Would appreciate comments/observations on this method

 

Outer/Exterior Protection

Lacquer vs Varnish- Both lacquer and varnish are used to provide a finish to wooden furniture, but they are different in ingredients and how they are made.
Varnish is made from resins that are mixed with thinners or other solvents to remain liquid. On the other hand, lacquer is made by dissolving cotton and nitrocellulose in solvents.
• Varnish is always transparent, whereas lacquer can be made to give tinted finishes.
• No flattening agent is added in lacquer, whereas varnish can produce semi glossy and even satin finishes because of the presence of flattening agents.
• Lacquer being quick drying, it is applied mostly by spraying whereas varnish is applied using a brush.

Varnish is a resin(natural or synthetic) dissolved in oil and does not contain pigments. It produces hard film. Where as lacquers are quick drying coatings made of nitrocellulose dissolved in solvent with pigment added for color.

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Babool- Gum Arabic Acacia Nilotica Wood for Handicrafts

The Babool or the Indian Gum, Nilotica (linn), Willd ex del is also known as kikar, babur etc. and is indigenous to the Indian Sub-continent. It is found in Deccan and Thar.

A. nilotica is a multipurpose tree. Its timber is valued by rural folks.

Uses

Tooth brushing- The tender twigs are used as a toothbrush (Datun)

Gum arabic- The gum of A. nilotica is also referred to in India as Amaravati gum

Hedges- V. nilotica is thorny and hence makes a good hedge.

Physical Properties of the Wood
The hard wood is heavy and tough. The average weight is about 785 kg/m3 at 12 per cent moisture content. It is somewhat coarse-textured and has interlocked grains. The wood is dull and somewhat rough without any characteristic odour or taste. The strength properties of wood are given below

 

Babool

Teak

  Green Air Dry Green Air Dry
Moisture content per cent 70 12 76.6 12
Static Bending        
(a) Fibre stress at elastic limit (kg/sq cm) 421 487 509 651
(b) Modulus of rupture(kg/cm2) 776 894 841 959
(c) Modulus of elasticity (1000 kg/sq cm) 977 1128 1097 1196
Impact bending        
(a) Fibre stress at elastic limit (kg/sq cm) 1085 1306 1085 1121
(b) Maximum height of drof in impact binding (cm) 130 104 91 71
(c) Modulus of elasticity (kg/sq cm) 108400 140100 160600 166800
Compression parallel to grain (kg/sq cm        
(a) Compressive stress at  207 260 311 376
(b) Maxi. Crushing stress  354 536 415 532
(c) Modulus of elasticity 101800 118000 129800 137400
Compression perpendicular to grain (kg/sq cm)        
(a) Compressive stress at elastic limit  91 124 86 101
Hardness-load in kg to embed 1.128 cm diameter ball to half diameter        
(a) Radial  720 824 557 502
(b) Tangential  755 855 551 524
(c) End  671 915 486 488
Shear paralled to grain (kg/sq cm)        
(a) Radial  119 168 90 97
(b) Tangential  143 192 100 108
Tension perpendicular to grain (kg/sq cm)        
(a) Radial 89 71 68 58
(b) Tangential 107 93 79 66

Working and Finishing Properties
In its green state, It is an easy wood to convert and resaw. However, it becomes harder and tougher when seasoned. It works well by hand machines and finishes to a good surface. Its working quality index based on quality of worked surface and ease of working is 84 compared to 100 for teak.
Timber
The wood is widely used for construction as posts, rafters, beams and in door frames. It is one of the most favoured timbers for all types of agricultural implements like ploughs, harrows, crushers and rice pounders, and is extensively used in card building, for yokes, shafts, wheels and body work. Babul wood is also recommended for certain types of sports and athletic goods like clubs, wall bars, parallel bars, etc..

Fuelwood- and charcoal. Its charcoal is considered to be superior to charcoal from other species.

Resources

http://www.frienvis.nic.in/WriteReadData/UserFiles/file/pdfs/Babul.pdf

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vachellia_nilotica

 

We have found it to be an excellent raw material for various handicrafts

See some of our Babool/Acacia products on OUR EBAY STORE

HTTP://STORES.EBAY.COM/BAMBOOWOODCRAFT USA STORE

HTTP://STORES.EBAY.CA/BAMBOOWOODCRAFT CANADA STORE

HTTP://STORES.EBAY.COM.AU/BAMBOOWOODCRAFT AUSTRALIA STORE

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Iron Bamboo Sticks for Filipino Martial Arts

Silat, Kali, Arnis, Eskrima are variations of Stick Fighting Martial Art Form that evolved in Philippines.

Arnis & Eskrima are Spanish words. The term Escrima/ Eskrima, is derived from a Spanish term “esgrima”, meaning ‘fencing’. This art form was more from the central part of the Philippines. Arnis, is derived from a Spanish term  ‘Arnes de mano’ meaning ‘armour of the hands’. It was later shortened to ‘Arnis’. This art form comes from the northern parts of the Philippines. They're Filipino stick fighting mixed with European techniques of sword fighting

Kali is a Silat style, martial art form- and comes from the southern part of the Philippines. The word Kali is Indonesian, derived from the Bahasia dialect, meaning river. As per certain literature- the stick in Kali Stick Fighting, epitomizes the river, continuously flowing, unstoppable, with the ability to consume whatever lays in its path.  Throw a boulder in a river and the water will go under, over, through or around it but it will continue to flow.

For the most part, these are all similar, if not same, martial arts. The masters of these arts influenced each other and thus there are many similarities. The differences usually depend on the instructor.

2017-08-20 20.24.31

We have listed this on ebay-

4421023001 Set of 4 pieces, Iron, Bamboo, Martial, Arts, Escrima, Anis, Kali, Practice, Bo, Staff, Walking, Stick

IRON BAMBOO, is a rare variety of ALMOST FULLY SOLID BAMBOO SPECIES, harder than hardwood. Certain mechanical parameters are comparable to steel. Bamboo has a longer longitudinal fibre- thus does not break easily. It may momentarily yield/bend under extreme pressure, but comes back to its original form- much like an elastic. This helps to reduce the intensity of the impact shock.

EBAY CANADA

www.ebay.ca/itm/253106976140

Price: C $27.00

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Add to watch list , Add to collection

EBAY USA

www.ebay.com/itm/253106938014

Price: US $22.00

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Best Offer: Make Offer

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Iron Bamboo Processing and Preservation

As a person undertaking agro-forestry of bamboo, we process Iron Bamboo for Handicrafts, Martial Art or Medieval Replica Weapons for Self Defense, which involves specialized methods and techniques of processing and preservation, to increase its durability.

Preservation techniques-

The empirical wisdom or popular knowledge, of indigenous people, peasants, farmers and artisans, has been developed through centuries in all the continents and has resulted in well-known methods and techniques to effectively preserve bamboo. Traditional methods are generally cheaper to implement and can be done without any special equipment.

For proper Preservation of iron bamboo, it must be harvested/cut early mornings, before sunrise, in winters - on a waning moon.** (This is a controversial topic, scientists argue over the truth behind this “peasant knowledge”. Nevertheless, detailed studies show remarkable differences with untreated bamboo, when harvested at specific hours and moon phases. The starch content is lowest between waning gibbous and last quarter between the 6th and 8th day after full moon due to the higher gravitation of the moon. On the basis of photosynthesis, in the course of the morning, bamboo starts transporting starch from the roots into the leaves.

Soaking- After harvest, bamboo is stored in running water for 3-4 weeks to leach out starch.

Chemical Treatments ( any one -to be done immediately after harvesting or after soaking)-

  • CCA (copper-chrome-arsenic composition, in the proportion 3: 1:4) is good for bamboo, but has associated health hazards. Thus, it has to be used judiciously, if at all. Bamboo products are tanalised, impregnated under pressure or boiled with chromated copper arsenate (CCA) to protect against rot. CCA is effective but toxic/carcinogenic.

  • ACA- Ammoniacal copper arsenate penetration in bamboo is effective against fungi, bacteria and insects. However, ACA is eco-toxic non-degradable.

  • CCB and CCBF  - commercially ASCU.

  • Boric acid, borax and boron are cheaper than CCA and less poisonous. This is used at a concentration of  2.5 per cent each, to be dissolved in hot water. The preservative, (disodium octaborate- which forms as a result of the reaction), is easily soluble in water. This process is only recommended for bamboo culms that would not be exposed to water or rain. Boron salts are effective against borers, termites and fungi (except soft rot fungi), and is widely recognized to be environmentally acceptable and safe for the mammals.

  • Other alternatives methods:Treatment of bamboo with limewater.

  • Drying of bamboo before use is necessary since dry bamboo is stronger and less susceptible to biological degradation than moist bamboo. In some experiments carried out it was found that Acetic acid (Vinegar), completely prevented moulds/fungus incidence during the drying process. (Tang et al., 2009).

  • Following the drying, the bamboo is TRADITIONALLY smoked by storing it above a fireplace, to blacken the culm. This, however, may not be necessary if chemical methods are used.

  • Fire Retardant Preservative- This treatment is intended to protect materials against fire as well as decay and insect attack. A mixture of boric acid / copper sulphate / zinc chloride / sodium dichromate in a ratio of 3:1:5:6 is recommended at 25% for indoor and outdoor use

  • For Termites- 1% Dieldrin may be added to the preservative. However, Dieldrin is dangerous, and use is illegal in several countries.

Further information
• Non poisonous Timber Protection Practical Action Technical Brief
• Designing and Building with Bamboo by Jules J. A. Janssen

https://www.guaduabamboo.com/preservation/chemical-bamboo-preservation

https://www.guaduabamboo.com/preservation/durability-of-bamboo

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Iron Bamboo Collectible Police Baton Night Stick

We have listed a set of 4 (Iron Bamboo Collectible Police Baton Night Stick) on ebay for $ 90.

Iron bamboo is a very rare variety of bamboo that is almost solid. Its strength is comparable to steel, and is much stronger than any hardwood. See our post for more details

4421029901 vintage tire thumper mixed lot set of 4-1Tire Thumper-1

http://www.ebay.com/itm/Set-4-Iron-Bamboo-Antique-Tire-Thumper-Vintage-Bat-Collectible-Police-Stick-/253098336228

http://ebay.com/itm/253098336228

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Iron Bamboo Tire Thumper Antique Vintage Police Stick

We have started to list our own grown IRON Bamboo Tire Thumpers, Antique Vintage Police sticks on ebay.

Tire Thumper-1

 

 

Picture-

Description- 19 inches, made of iron bamboo or Acacia hardwood

Product Code- 4421020211

Ebay Item No.-253078211704

Ebay Link- www.ebay.com/itm/253078211704

 

Visit our ebay store

http://stores.ebay.com/bamboowoodcraft USA Store

http://stores.ebay.ca/bamboowoodcraft Canada Store

http://stores.ebay.com.au/bamboowoodcraft Australia Store

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Iron Bamboo- Thyrsostachys Oliveri- Kanak Kainch

Thyrsostachys Oliveri, another of the few "Iron Bamboos", is native to the Thailand, South China and N.E India (Tripura area). It is one of the most important bamboo species, because of its near solid structure and fiber quality. Locally called the Kanak Kaich, its a fairly straight growing mid sized bamboo, with a small spread. Farmers in Katlamara in West Tripura cultivate this bamboo at close spacing of about 2.5 m x 2.5 m.

I found this IRON BAMBOO species interesting, due to its vigorous growth at a Nursery close to Dehradun. I have, thus planted a few in my little bambusarium, due to its possible applications in the handicraft sector.

Thyrsostachys oliveri is a short rhizomed, perennial, evergreen, clumping/sympodial tropical bamboo, with persistent culm-sheath, which is an identifying feature.

thyrsostachys oliveri consistent culm sheath

The almost straight/erect culms are about 15 - 25 m long; 50 - 70mm in dia and about 40 - 60cm internode.

Thyrrsostachys_oliveri

As an iron bamboo, its valued as an excellent material for house-beams and miscellaneous applications in construction. The culms are used for reinforcing concrete blocks. Local craftsmen use this bamboo for handicrafts- mat-making, basketry, broom handles etc. Its fiber has a dark brown lustre, which makes it a material of choice for handicrafts. In Thailand, the young shoots are harvested for the production of steamed bamboo shoots.

Habitat : This species originates on the low hills forest, open areas at an altitudinal ranges of 500–700 m.

Distribution : Thailand, Myanmar, China - introduced and cultivated in tropical / subtropical Asia (Gamble, 1896; Wu, 2006).

Silvi-cultural management techniques Propagated through air-layering, culm cutting or offset planting.

Local Names :

Thailand;Phai ruak dam

Burma-Thanawa. Thyrsostachys Oliveri is a Native of Burma. (Nayagarh & Ganjam Districts)

Manipur- Keirakwa

Tripura- Kanak Kaich, Busai, Nusai, Nala Bauns

 

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Bamboo Trails- Dendrocalamus Stocksii

I learnt about this near solid, iron-bamboo (Dendrocalamus Stocksii) from an article published by Institute of Wood Science and Technology. The interesting feature was its loose-clumping growth habit, along with a near absence of inter-nodal cavity, thereby making it a suitable candidate for consideration of use to replace wood in certain applications in the handicraft industry. Also alluded to, as an iron-bamboo due to its iron like strength, this species is practically non-existent in N. India. Scientists at FRI and various agricultural institutes need to study the viability of introducing Dendrocalamus Stocksii in the TARAI, which is pretty humid and moist, much like the costal area, where this bamboo is naturally found.

Classification

Dendrocalamus stocksii (Munro), synonym Oxytenanthera stocksii / Pseudoxytenanthera stocksiiaabsence (Munro), synonym Oxytenanthera stocksii / Pseudoxytenanthera stocksii

As per the alluded article, Dendrocalamus stocksii is naturally distributed in Central Western Ghats. Locally called - Chivari’, Mes, Konda, Oor-shema, Marihal, Manga etc. D. stocksii has medium sized, stout solid and strong culms. Though the natural distribution of this species is in humid tropics, this species has a wide adaptability and comes up well in tropical humid, sub humid and semi-arid conditions.

MORPHOLOGY

Culms are said to be about 8 to 9m, basal dia 25-58mm and internode of 15-30cm, light green in colour, loosely spaced and without thorns. They are solid at the base upto about half the culm height.

Anatomical and Mechanical Properties of Dendrocalamus stocksii

Specific gravity- 0.691

Fibre Diameter (μm)- 16.6

Fibre Lumen Diameter (μm)- 5.7

Fibre length (mm)-3.4

Fibre Wall Thickness (μm)- 10.9

Modulus of Rupture (MOR) (kg/cm2)- 620

Maximum crushing stress (kg/cm2)- 386

Vascular bundles per cm2- 281

(Source: Rao et al., 2004)

Species Specific gravity MOR (kg/cm2) Max. crushing stress (kg/cm2)
Dendrocalamus stocksii 0.691 620 386
Bambusa nutans 0.603 529 456
Bambusa bambos 0.584 836 572
Dendrocalamus strictus 0.631 734 359
Tectona grandis 0.604 959 532
comparison
kN/cm²   spruce   bamboo   steel St37
elastic modulus   1100   2000   21000
compressive compressive   4.3   6.2-9.3   14
tension strength   8.9   14.8-38.4   16
bending strength   6.8   7.6-27.6   14
shearing strength   0.7   2.0   9.2

Source- http://bambus.rwth-aachen.de/eng/reports/mechanical_properties/referat2.html

The compressive strength of bamboo is roughly situated between 40 and 80 N/mm2 which is twice to four times the value of most timber species. Bamboo with low moisture content has a higher compressive strength than one with higher moisture.

The shear strength of bamboo is often twice the value of popular timber species.

The bending strength of most bamboo species varies between 50 and 150 N/mm2 and is on average twice as strong as most conventional structural timbers

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Bamboo- For Handicrafts and Fiber

Bamboo, genetically, a grass, is proving to be a suitable green substitute to hardwood timber. Its green, because it is one of the fastest growing plants, and under a suitable regimen of agro-forestry, can substantially reduce the burden on our forests.

Needless to mention, that Indian Wooden Handicraft Industry is having to look at alternative resources for raw material, in light of Indian Rosewood (Shisham) having been classified under schedule 2 of the  CITES lists.

Bamboo seems to fit the bill perfectly. 

As a farmer, as well a stake-holder in handicraft business, we have hence commenced planting bamboo for our needs. In quest of elite planting material, I travelled to all corners of the country, as well as parts of Bhutan and Nepal. We collected some interesting genotypes- We also received some good planting material from Agro-Forestry Dept.of GBPUAT. As a result of above efforts, we have now established trial plots of 6 species of bamboo on our farm, which we shall study for suitability for handicraft applications, as well as its agronomy ( suitability as a cash crop).

Bamboo has a long and interesting history dating back more than 5,000 years. The woody stem has various applications- it is widely used in construction industry, handicrafts, paper, furniture and for fiber processing, besides some other applications. 

Bamboo textiles are textiles derived from bamboo fibers, with or without hemp/cotton/spandex blends. BAMBOO Fiber is obtained from the culms- it is lingo cellulosic, made from bamboo timber which has matured for at least 3-4 years (depending on species). The major chemical constituents of bamboo are cellulose, hemi-cellulose and lignin, besides minor occurrence of waxes, resins, tannins, proteins and ashes. Bamboo fibers comprise of 60–70 % holo-cellulose, pentose's (20–25 %), hemicelluloses and lignin. The α-cellulose of bamboo is comparable with that of woods. Cellulose contents in this range make bamboo a suitable raw material for the pulp and paper industry. Cellulose is made up of linear chains of β-1-4-linked glucose anhydride units.

Mature Culms are crushed and submersed in a strong solution of sodium hydroxide to dissolve the cellulose. Carbon disulfide is added to regenerate fibers, which are then drawn off, washed and bleached and dried. The resultant fluff is spun into yarn.

The higher tensile strength and longer staple results in a tough yet soft yarn – This is what gives bamboo fabrics excellent durability. The hollowness of the bamboo fiber makes it highly absorbent. Thus, it takes longer to dry on a clothesline. The hollowness of the bamboo fiber also enables it to hold color (dyes and pigments)-thus it is much more colorfast.

Main methods of producing bamboo fibers-

The culm is crushed and soaked in a solution of 18 % NaOH at 20–25 °C for 1– 3 h to form alkali cellulose, which is then pressed to remove excess NaOH solution. The mass is further crushed, left to dry for 24 h and CS2 added. This causes the bamboo alkali cellulose to sulfurise and jell out. The remaining CS2 is removed by evaporation due to decompression, resulting in sodium xanthogenate.  A diluted solution of NaOH is added to the cellulose sodium xanthogenate, to dissolve it into a viscose solution consisting of about 5 % NaOH and 7–15 % bamboo fiber cellulose.  The viscose solution is forced through spinneret nozzles into a larger container of diluted sulfuric acid (H2SO4) solution which, hardens the viscose and reconverts it to cellulose bamboo fiber which are spun into yarns (to be woven or knitted).

Lyocell process uses N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMNO) to dissolve the bamboo cellulose into viscose solution. NMNO- a weak alkaline-  acts as surfactant, as well as to break down the cellulose structure. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is added as a stabilizer and the solution is forced through spinnerets into a hardening bath (usually a solution of H2O2 and a alcohol like methanol or ethanol), which causes the thin streams of viscose solution to harden into bamboo cellulose fibers. The regenerated bamboo fibers are spun into yarns.

BAMBOO CHARCOAL FIBER  The joints of bamboo are cut out and then split up into pieces of slivers of an inch in width. The shredded bamboo is pickled in a solution of clear lime-water, nitrate of soda and oxalic acid. The pickled bamboo is removed after 12–24 h in order to be boiled in a solution of soda ash. The material is crushed and then combed, carded, or heckled. It is then spun into cordage, yarn or other forms of manufacturing.
LITRAX (NATURAL) BAMBOO FIBER Mechanical extraction of natural bamboo fiber, a Bamboo culms. b Mechanical splitting of bamboo culms. c Rasping of woody parts. d Enzyme bath. e Gray and bleached natural bamboo fibers. f Woven bamboo fabric. In order to turn bamboo into a fiber, first the culm must be crushed mechanically. The crushed bamboo strands are then treated with designed enzymes to separate the fibrous material from the glue-like lignin within the plant. This includes a series of precisely timed alternate steam- washing and enzyme treatment cycles, which also act on the vertical and horizontally aligned lignin of the resulting fiber bundles. The final step is to bleach the fibers with hydrogen peroxide. The resulting natural staple length varies between 70 and 150 mm, but can be cut to shorter lengths for processing, i.e. 50 or 38 mm staple. Litrax provides the LITRAX-1 (L1) natural bamboo fibers with a special DNA coding to protect its vertical supply chain and customers. The DNA coding will guarantee that customers are buying the original, authentic bamboo fiber from Litrax. The fiber is strong and durable.

TECHNICAL DATA OF LITRAX L1 BAMBOO FIBER L1 fiber characteristics Dimensions Fineness 5.7D Fiber dimensions 38 mm from (natural 70–150 mm staple)

END USES OF BAMBOO FIBER Bamboo fabrics are made from pure bamboo fiber yarns which have excellent wet permeability, moisture vapor transmission property, soft hand, better drape, easy dying, splendid colors.

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