Prophylactic Natural Remedies for Asthma Virals and COVID Immunity

Prophylactic Natural Remedies for Asthma Virals and COVID Immunity

My experiments with NATURAL REMEDIES have been, very specific and need based. I left my job in TEA in 99, primarily due to Asthma.
Asthmatics are also prone to viral fevers, pneumonia etc. Thus, frequency of occurrence of viral fevers, bronchitis, was also high, during the years I was inflicted with Asthma.
I was disheartened to be administered steroids (Seroflo Inhaler) and Montair. Thus, I started researching Ayurvedic Methods to heal myself. I also got introduced to Yoga, thanks to my wife, who is a disciple of the Sivananda School of Yoga.
Over the last 25 years, I have been able to cure my asthma with ALTERNATIVE THERAPIES and Medicines. My immunity has improved REMARKABLY, and as a consequence, the frequency of occurrence of viral fever has DRASTICALLY reduced..
The following regimen has helped me to TOTALLY GIVE UP on STEROIDS/MONTAIR etc The regimen basically comprises of DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS, which are BOTH, Palliative, as well as Prophylactic.
  • Decoction/Tea of Giloy, Ginger, Tulsi, Lemongrass
  • Turmeric with Pippali and Gur (Jaggery)
  • Ginger, Garlic with Gur
  • Soda-Bicarb with Gur/Jaggery
  • Roasted Linseeds
  • A few drops of Mustard Oil (with about 1 to 2 percent each of geranium, mint eucalyptus oils) in the nasal passages
  • Steam with a few drops of GERANIUM, MINT EUCALYPTUS and CAMPHOR
  • Mother Tincture of ANDROGRAPHIS PANNICULATA (KALMEGH)
We must bear in mind that
We, the People of India, are fortunate to have a broader GENE-BASE (Genetic Pool), due to spate of invasions. With Mongoloid blood lines in the far East, Dravidian in the Deep South and Aryans/Iranian/Afghanistani/Roman in the North, our genetic pool has been strengthened.
We, the People of India, have a higher immunity due to the symbiotic nature of our existence, and Ayurvedic Ways of life. The First remedy is always from the kitchen or Ayurvedic Pharmacopea.
As on date, we do-not really know the Nature of COVID-19 VIRUS, nor its origin. Rumors abound. A school of thought mentions a sinister hand of black-biology. There is also a rumor of the virus that jumped from pangolin, on to the bat and on to the humans. As on date, little is known about its origin, and much lesser, about its cure. It threatens, our very existence. All, we, as a human race can do is
  1. abide by the advisories issued by the authorities. The first line of defense is QUARANTINE and SOCIAL DISTANCING. This shall stem the spread of the contagion. 
  2. take necessary steps to bolster our immunity. Yoga is helpful. It may further help to use NATURAL | AYURVEDIC DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS, which are specifically ANTI-VIRAL, ANTI-FUNGAL and ANTI-BACTERIAL.
  3. Meditate/Pray, to invoke the mind over body function to assist healing.
REFERENCES for FURTHER READING (Original Text has been quoted in the relevant excerpts)
Prescribes following for anti-viral prophylactic activity-
1. Oregano
2. Sage
3. Basil
4. Fennel
5. Garlic
6. Lemon Balm
7. Peppermint
8. Rosemary
9. Echinacea
10. Sambucus
11. Licorice
12. Astragalus
13. Ginger
14. Ginseng
15. Dandelion
Quoted
Geraniol, which is a component in Rose, Geranium, some Lemongrass genotypes, Citronella, Palmarosa etc- is an acyclic monoterpene alcohol with characteristic rose-like odour. It is antioxidant, antiviral, anti-bacterial. 
Geraniol significantly depressed the effect of oxidation-it showed good ability to capture 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals and to inhibit lipid peroxidation in a egg liposomal suspension. Geraniol showed low cytotoxicity toward HEp-2 cells. It was tested in vitro for its activity against viruses representing important human pathogens assigned to different taxonomic groups: coxsackievirus B1 (CV-B1) from the Picornaviridae family, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) from the Paramyxovir-idae family, and influenza virus A/Aichi/68/H3N2 from the Orthomyxoviridae family. In vitro antiviral effect was examined by the virus cytopathic effect inhibition assay. Geraniol showed antiviral activity only against CVB1-the ratio of selective index is 3.9. The investigated biological properties of geraniol, including good antioxidant and antiviral activities against some virus families, together with negligible toxicity, warrant further studies to explore the feasibility of formulating geraniol-containing consumer products with health promoting properties
Discusses in detail, the phytopharmaceutical effects of OIL OF ROSE, which has GERANIOL and CITRONELLOL as active ingredients.
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Antimicrobial activity- Methanol and aqueous extracts of rose petals showed antiviral activity against HIV infection by targeting different stages of HIV replicative cycle. Kaempferol and its derivatives affect on viral protease and gp120/CD4.21 The antiviral activity of main components of rose essential oil, citronellol, geraniol were confirmed against HSV-1, Haemophilus parainflunzae type 3.22
Furthermore, the acceptable antibacterial activity of rose essential oil were confirmed against Xanthomonas axonopodis spp. Vesicatoria23, Chromobacterium violaceum and Erwinia carotovora strains,13 Staphylococcus aureus,24 Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas fluorescens.18 Pseudomonas aeruginosa10, 24, 25, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Candida albicans, Enterococcus faecalis,24 Enterococcus faecium and Salmonella typhimurium24, 25 were less sensitive to rose essential oil. Bulgarian rose oil has been shown no antimicrobial activity.2
Alcoholic and aqueous extracts of rose petals showed higher antibacterial activity than that of petroleum ether extract. E. coli was resistant to rose petal ethanol extract while its aqueous extract showed more sensitivity.26 Ethanol extract also showed antimicrobial activity against methicillin resistant S. aureus, S. typhimurium, B. cereus, C. albicans.27 The antibacterial activity of rose petal acetone extract was confirmed against E. coli and B. subtilis. This activity was higher than its aqueous extract.23 A. niger exhibited less sensitivity to rose petal ethanol extract.27
The antibacterial activity of rose water and rose absolute was confirmed against E. coli, P. aeruginosa, B. subtilis, S. aureus, Chromobacterium violaceum and Erwinia carotovora strains.13, 23, 28 The antibacterial activity of rose absolute, rose essential oil has been higher than rose water and rose extracts.13
Therefore, R. damascena like other holy medicinal plants29 had antimicrobial activity.
The effectiveness of herbal mouthwash containing rose extract in treatment of recurrent aphtous stomatitis were confirmed in two weeks randomized double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial on fifty patients. The clinical results of mouthwash on pain, size and the number of ulcers was significantly different with placebo group. In other word, rose mouthwash was more effective than that of placebo group.30
The anti-infective and anti-inflammatory effects of ophthacare®, a product containing different herbs in combination with R. damascena were confirmed in patients with conjunctivitis, dry eye, acute dacryocystitis, pterygium or pinguecula disorders.31, 32
In poultry industry, dried rose dreg (by-product) decreased the occurrence of pathogen microorganisms including mesophilic aerobic bacteria, Enterococci, Entrobacteriaceae and S. aureus without any effect on broiler performance and feed conversion ratio during the production period.33
Indeed, the antimicrobial activity of rose extracts especially rose essential oil and absolute is related to chemical components especially geraniol, citronellol and nerol or synergistic effects between these components. The antibacterial34, 35, 36, 37, 38 and antifungal39, 40, 41, 42, 43 activities of geraniol were confirmed against a large number of microorganisms. Also, the synergistic effect between citronellol, geraniol and nerol were demonstrated against Gram positive, Gram negative bacteria.28 In other hand, the antimicrobial activity of rose extracts is related to chemical components of extracts and their synergistic or antagonistic effects.
5.2. Anticancer activity of R. damascena
The anti-tumor, anti-carcinogenic44 and cytotoxic effects of R. damascena45, 46 against cancer cells were confirmed. The geraniol as the main compounds of R. damascena acts via different mechanisms. It induces the apoptosis in cancer cells and increases the expression of apoptotic protein Bak,47 arrests the G0/G1 phase of cell cycle and reduces cdk2 activity,48 inhibits the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase49 and ornithine decarboxylase activity50 that finally causes the death in cancer cells.
5.3. Relaxant and anti-depressant activity of R. damascena
R. damascena via stimulating the β-adrenergic receptors,51 inhibiting the histamine H1 receptors and blocking the calcium channels of tracheal chain,52 inhibiting the KCl-related contraction and electrical field stimulation8 shows the relaxant activity.
R. damascena aqueous and ethanol extracts affect on respiratory system of guinea pigs by inhibition of tachykinin and decrease the number of citric acid induced coughs,52 therefore, it shows bronchodilatory and antitussive effects.
Other sub-fractions of R. damascena such as its ethyl acetate fraction shows inhibitory effects on muscarinic receptors and induces relaxant effects on tracheal smooth muscles.53 Therefore, R. damascena can be used as antitussive agent in clinics. Verifying this effect needs more clinical studies.
The anti-depressant effects of R. damascena aqueous extract were confirmed in animal models.54 Rose absolute exhibits the anti-depressant activity by decreasing the lipid peroxidation and increasing the antioxidants in cerebral cortex.55 Furthermore, depression is one reason for libido. As mentioned before, it is believed that rose essential oil and rose water bring happiness, self-confidence and are known as sensual and aphrodisiac agents. It has been confirmed that rose essential oil helps to infertility and libido via increasing the diameters of seminipherous tubules, sperm count and motility and enhancing the testosterone production.56 Furthermore, administration of rose essential oil improves sexual dysfunction and symptoms of depression in male patients suffering from major depressive disorders (consuming the selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors) higher than placebo group after week 2 to week 8.57 In other world, patients with depression may benefits from rose extracts by their antidepressant activity and anti-libido effects.
5.4. Antioxidant activity of R. damascena
Decoctions,58 aqueous extract,59 essential oil,60, 61, 62 absolute,13 methanol,63 ethanol extracts17, 62 of rose petals have been shown antioxidant activity in different systems. The antioxidant activity of rose absolute with higher amount of carotene, α,β,γ-tocopheroles was higher than that of rose essential oil and rose water.13
The antioxidant activity of R. damascena is not related to anthocyanin level,64 but is correlated to total phenolic, flavonol contents of R. damascena.63 Leaf methanol extract of rose with high amount of (+)-catechin and (−)- epicatechin as phenolic compounds has been shown antioxidant activity higher than that of BHT, trolox and BHT.63
The benefit effects of rose essential oil against formaldehyde inhalation on reproductive system are related to the antioxidant activity of rose essential oil. Pretreatment with rose essential oil has been decreased the abnormal sperm and increased the sperm counts in rats.60 Rose hips as herbal teas are consumed as strong antioxidant beverages.65
Therefore, the benefit effects of R. damascena in scavenging of free radicals introduce it as good beverage for helping the health condition. In Iranian cultures, rose water was added to cold beverages as refreshing agent.
5.5. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory activities of R. damascena
The analgesic, anti-inflammatory effects of R. damascena ethanol,66 chloroform extracts67 have been shown in animal models, while rose essential oil has been exhibited no analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects.67 Indeed, the component(s) that have analgesic effects in ethanol extract were not found in rose essential oil.
There are confusing results about the beneficial effects of rose hips in treatment of patients suffering from knee or hip osteoarthritis.22, 68, 69, 70 It has been shown rose hip powder (10 g) for 1 month showed no anti-inflammatory or antioxidant effects in rheumatoid arthritis patients,68 while others have been indentified rose hips as anti-inflammatory agent.22, 69, 70 Unsaturated fatty acids, triterpenoic acids or unidentified compounds and their synergistic effects exhibit anti-inflammatory effect71 via inhibiting cyclooxygenase 1 and 2.3, 4
5.6. Other pharmacological activities of R. damascena
The hypnotic effects of R. damascena different extracts (ethanol, aqueous extracts, and ethyl acetate, aqueous and n-butanol fractions) were comparable to diazepam.72, 73, 74 The best hypnotic effects of extracts were reported for ethyl acetate fraction. The hypnotic effects of ethyl acetate fraction may be related to the affinity of flovonoids in extracts to benzodiazepine receptors.74
R. damascena is benefit to Alzheimer and dementia patients due to inhibitory effects on amyloid β formation, induction of neurite outgrowth75, 76 and anti-cholinesterase activity.77
The protective effects of R. damascena ethanol extract on memory performance of scopolamine-induced memory deficits rats were confirmed. The antioxidant effects of rose extract was the cause of memory enhancing.78
Rose essential oil,79 ethanol and aqueous extracts have been shown anti-seizure effects because of their anticonvulsant effects80 and reducing of epileptic seizures. The affinity of flavonoids on GABAergic system in brain has been proposed as one of probable mechanisms because flavonoids enhance the effect of benzodiazepines on GABA receptors.81
As its traditional uses, the usefulness of R. damascena ethanol extract for treatment of digestive disorders has been shown. R. damascena decreases ileum movements dose-dependently, probably through stimulating the β-adrenergic and opioid receptors and voltage-dependent calcium channels.82
Rose essential oil has been used traditionally for treatment of cardiac diseases via massage on the skin. Nowadays, it has been shown R. damascena aqueous extract increases the heart rate and contractility in guinea pig via stimulatory effect on β-adrenoceptor83 and suppressing the activity of ACE (angiotensin- I- converting) enzyme.84
The efficacy of R. damascena extract on primary dysmenorrheal syndrome (PMS) was confirmed in double blind cross over clinical trial on 92 single girls. R. damascena extract with no side effects decreased the average of pain density in PMS such as mefnamic acid.85
R. damascena methanol extract like other ethnobotanical holy plants such as Trichilia emetica, Opilia amentacea showed anti-diabetic activity.86 R. damascena methanol extract inhibited α-glucosidase enzyme and suppressed carbohydrate absorption from small intestine. So, it reduces the postprandial glucose level, therefore it had anti-diabetic effects.87
R. damascena methanol extract had moderate effects on reduction of total cholesterol, triglyceride and low density lipoprotein and plaques formation.87 It has no effect on high density lipoproteins levels. Therefore, the anti hyperlipidemic effects of R. damascena methanol extract is caused through inhibiting the activities of pancreatic lipase and HMG COA reductase.88, 89
Waste rose petals as by product of rose essential oil’s industries have been explored as a source of immune-modulating peptic polysaccharids.90 Further studies are required to confirm the applications of waste rose petal as immunomodulator agent.
Quoted
3.1 Antiviral Activities of Liquid Phase EOs Three of the oils, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Citrus bergamia and Thymus vulgaris (Figure 1, 2), were able to completely inactivate (IC100) the virus at high dilutions, down to <3.1 µL per mL or less (Figure 3). Lavandula officinalis and Eucalyptus globulus also showed excellent activity at higher concentrations, but were much less effective at the lower concentrations. Salvia was only partly active at the concentrations tested. In similar experiments liquid phase Pelargonium graveolens (Geranium) oil also showed good antiviral activity. Cupressus sempervirens and its main constituent α-pinene did not show antiviral activity even at very low dilutions. Among the pure components tested, only eugenol showed 100% plaque reduction (Figure 3) but citronellol displayed partial inactivation. Liquid canola oil, used as a negative control, had no activity even at very high concentration (100%
Two EOs, C. bergamia, E. globulus, and the tested pure compounds citronellol and eugenol showed significant activity against influenza virus following exposures of only 10 minutes
P. Graveolens at 100 uL/mL
Respiratory viruses continue to cause problems within the general population, as a result of frequent acute and chronic infections, including occasional epidemics. Few satisfactory therapeutic agents are available, in part because of the diversity of replication schemes among these viruses, and consequently the lack of a generic molecular target; and partly because of the continual emergence of drug-resistant mutants in the viral populations. These problems are well illustrated by influenza viruses.
Some essential oils have demonstrated effective antimicrobial and antiviral properties, and in a few cases beneficial antiinflammatory properties [4, 8, 19, 6, 3, 20]. However, these studies tested the liquid oil phases, which are generally less practical and potentially toxic for nasopharyngeal or oral applications. A few reports have indicated that the vapors of some oils might be useful for this purpose [3, 13, 14], and this type of application would be in accord with anecdotal reports of the usefulness of inhaled vapors [3, 14]
Eucalyptus globulus had less activity (MIC100 50 µL/mL) in liquid phase but showed prominent activity in 10 min vapor phase (94% ± 3).
LINALOOL is believed to exhibit the following activity:
Sedative
Anti-depressant
Anti-inflammatory
Anti-anxiety
Anti-epileptic
Analgesic
CITRONELLOL is believed to exhibit the following activity:
Anti-fungal
Sedative
Anti-viral
Anti-microbial
Anti-spasmodic
Anti-inflammatory
Anti-oxidant
Anti-convulsant
GERANIOL is believed to exhibit the following activity:
Anti-oxidant
Anti-bacterial
Anti-septic
Analgesic
Quoted
Extracts of S. montana, O. vulgare, M. piperita, M. officinalis, T. vulgaris, H. officinalis, S. officinalis and D. canadense showed anti-IBV activity prior to and during infection
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Abstract
The present invention concerns an antiviral composition comprising of components including geraniol and citronellol
Antimicrobial efficacy experiments.Allspice oil, lemongrass oil, and citral were evaluated in separate experiments at concentrations of 2.0% and 4.0% (vol/vol). The experiments were performed at room temperature (∼24°C) in triplicate in PBS (1-ml volume in 5-ml polystyrene tubes) (Becton, Dickinson and Company, Franklin Lakes, NJ). MNV was added separately to each of the tubes (to a final concentration of ∼106 to 107 TCID50/ml), and the tubes were placed on an orbital shaker (model G33; New Brunswick Scientific, Edison, NJ) with agitation at 300 rpm. Control tubes (no antimicrobials added) containing MNV in PBS were also included in each experiment. The control tubes were sampled immediately (0 h) by removing 100 μl from each and placing this volume in 900 μl of DMEM-FBS. At time intervals of 0.5, 6, and 24 h of exposure, 100-μl samples were removed from each tube and diluted in 900 μl of DMEM-FBS to neutralize the antimicrobials. All samples were placed at −80°C until subsequent assays were performed using the TCID50 cell culture method (as described previously) to determine the infectious virus titer.
Geraniol suppresses prostate cancer growth through down‐regulation of E2F8
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Melissa officinalis (lemon balm) is a member of the Lamiaceae (mint) family. The main components of the essential oil are citral (neral and geranial), citronellal, linalool, geraniol and β-caryophyllene-oxide [29]. Other ingredients are tannins unique to the Lamiaceae, such as triterpenylic acid, bitter principles, flavonoids including phenolic acids, terpenes, rosmarinic acid and caffeic acids, also lemon balm have antioxidant, antihistamine, antispasmodic, anti-tumor/anticancer, antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral properties. The extract of M. officinalis has been reported to inhibit protein synthesis and exhibit antiviral action against the Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) [5].
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The essential oil composition of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) produced in two ecological conditions were evaluated using gas chromatography–flame ionization detector (GC–FID) and GC–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). Thirty-three constituents, representing 91.4 ± 1.56% to 98.1 ± 0.60% of the total oil compositions, were identified. The major constituents of the essential oil were geranial (42.3 ± 1.77% to 44.9 ± 3.23%), neral (30.7 ± 1.11% to 32.6 ± 3.57%), (E)-caryophyllene (2.8 ± 1.00% to 3.5 ± 1.27%), geranyl acetate (0.7 ± 0.49% to 3.3 ± 0.15%), geraniol (0.9 ± 0.93% to 2.6 ± 0.35%), piperitone (0.6 ± 0.96% to 2.5 ± 1.81%), nerol (0.8 ± 0.44% to 2.4 ± 0.23%), caryophyllene oxide (0.8 ± 0.81% to 2.3 ± 0.55%), (E)-isocitral (0.5 ± 0.06% to 2.1 ± 0.46%) and citronellal (0.4 ± 0.52% to 2.1 ± 0.06%). The examined lemon balm essential oil was considerably rich in monoterpenoid aldehyde (citral, 73.0–77.5%).
Quoted
Lemon balm, Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae), a native of the northern Mediterranean region and western Asia, is cultivated as a medicinal herb (Schultze et al., 1993). Lemon balm holds the prime position among a diversity of aromatic plants being cultivated throughout the world. It was used in ancient Greece and Rome as a topical treatment for wounds. In the middle ages it was used as a sedative and in the 17th century, English herbalist Culpeper claimed it could improve mood and stimulate clear thinking (Braun and Cohen, 2007). It is listed in a number of European Pharmacopoeia for its carminative, digestive, diaphoretic and stimulant activities (Gbolade and Lockwood, 1989), calmative, antiseptic (Baytop, 1984), antimicrobial (Larrando et al., 1995), antioxidative (Ribeiro et al., 2001), and also possesses antiviral activity (Herrmann and Kucera, 1967, Dimitrova et al., 1993). It also inhibits thyroid activity (Bown, 1995). Lemon balm has been found to exhibit CNS acetylcholine receptor activity, with both nicotinic and muscarinic binding properties (Wake et al., 2000). In vitro testing has identified its anti-HIV activity against HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (Yamasaki et al., 1998) and antitumour activity (Galasinski, 1996). Externally, it is used to treat herpes, sores, gout, insect bites and as an insect repellent (Bown, 1995). Moreover, the leaves are used in traditional medicine to prepare a tea for its nerve calming and spasmolytic effects (Wheatley, 2005, Kennedy et al., 2006). In clinical practice, lemon balm is often prescribed in combination with other herbal medicines thereby making it difficult to determine the efficacy of this herb individually (Braun and Cohen, 2007).
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Active Essential Oils and Their Components in Use against Neglected Diseases and Arboviruses
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Recently, pure compounds from natural products are gaining acceptance as potentially promising complementary and alternative medicines for the treatment of various diseases. Generally, single compounds could target DNA, mRNA, protein, and even microRNA. Accumulating evidence in last the decades has indicated that GE is a pure botanical compound without adverse effects, exerting diverse activities by mainly regulating protein expression, suggesting that GE could become a novel drug candidate to treat various diseases. The cytotoxic effect of GE on cancer cells indicates that GE could treat cancer and reduce the mortality of cancer patients. The anti-inflammatory and oxidative effects of GE indicates that GE could protect organ damage and treat ulcerative colitis. The antifungal activity of GE indicates that GE could protect patients from fungal infection. The antidiabetic effect of GE indicates that GE could treat diabetes. The antinociceptive activity of GE indicates that GE could be used as an analgesic in clinical trials. However, anticancer effects of GE should be clarified in vivo in more animal models, and later in human patients, to confirm the inhibitory effect of GE on malignancy. Also, it is worthwhile to explore the molecular basis underlying pharmacological actions (e.g., antimicrobial and antiarrhythmic activities). The lack of information about definitive targets of GE would be a reason against the application of GE in clinical trials.
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Citronellol is an alcoholic monoterpene found in essential oils such Cymbopogon citratus (a plant with antihypertensive properties). β-Citronellol can act against pathogenic microorganisms that affect airways and, in virtue of the popular use of β-citronellol-enriched essential oils in aromatherapy, we assessed its pharmacologic effects on the contractility of rat trachea. Contractions of isolated tracheal rings were recorded isometrically through a force transducer connected to a data-acquisition device. β-Citronellol relaxed sustained contractions induced by acetylcholine or high extracellular potassium, but half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) for K+-elicited stimuli were smaller than those for cholinergic contractions. It also inhibited contractions induced by electrical field stimulation or sodium orthovanadate with pharmacologic potency equivalent to that seen against acetylcholine-induced contractions. When contractions were evoked by selective recruitment of Ca2+ from the extracellular medium, β-citronellol preferentially inhibited contractions that involved voltage-operated (but not receptor-operated) pathways. β-Citronellol (but not verapamil) inhibited contractions induced by restoration of external Ca2+ levels after depleting internal Ca2+ stores with the concomitant presence of thapsigargin and recurrent challenge with acetylcholine. Treatment of tracheal rings with L-NAME, indomethacin or tetraethylammonium did not change the relaxing effects of β-citronellol. Inhibition of transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1) or transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) receptors with selective antagonists caused no change in the effects of β-citronellol. In conclusion, β-citronellol exerted inhibitory effects on rat tracheal rings, with predominant effects on contractions that recruit Ca2+ inflow towards the cytosol by voltage-gated pathways, whereas it appears less active against contractions elicited by receptor-operated Ca2+ channels.
Citronellol has low toxicity with an oral median lethal dose of 3.45 g/kg for rats (3). β-Citronellol is naturally abundant as a volatile constituent responsible for the pleasant aroma and flavor of fruits such as Vitis vinifera L. (4). It is considered to be a Generally Recognized as Safe compound for food use. β-Citronellol belongs to a group of terpenoid-flavoring agents. The acceptable daily intake of β-citronellol is 0.5 mg/kg body weight with no toxicity at currently estimated levels of intake
Quoted
Geraniol
3.4. Anti-oxidant effects
Geraniol (a citrus volatile) showed marked scavenging activities against the DPPH radical (87.7%, 235.9 mg of Trolox equiv/ml). Tiwari and Kakkar (2009) also reported the anti-oxidant potential of geraniol using tsigniertiary-butyl hydroper-oxide stressed rat alveolar macrophages. Geraniol increased the cell viability significantly and showed 45% increase in superoxide dismutase activity, 120% increase in glutathione content and restored the mitochondrial membrane potential. Geraniol was found to significantly decrease lipid peroxidation, inhibit NO release (64.61%) and ROS generation in the pre-treated cells as compared to stressed cells. Geraniol also showed significant protection against ROS. These results indicated the pharmacological potential of geraniol in lung inflammatory diseases where oxidative stress was a critical control point.
The several biological properties of geraniol including antimicrobial, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, together with negligible toxicity, warrant further studies to explore the feasibly of formulating geraniol-containing consumer products with health promoting properties.
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