Lemongrass Rhodinol for Bacteria and Fungus

Rhodinol is a term used to describe Citronellol and Geraniol- when they exist together. There are quite a few essential oils which contain rhodinol.

Essential Oils of Geranium, Rose, and a revolutionary new genotype of Lemongrass- are some of the examples- see the table below for a typical GC.

As a grower of bamboo, as well as essential oil crops- I, accidentally discovered an interesting application of rhodinol lemongrass for treating bamboo to protect it against pathogens and fungus, besides imparting a beautiful rosy aromatic note to our bamboo products.

Last few years, I have been experimenting with various oils- I found Oils of Rose and Geranium too expensive for my applications- though they also contain geraniol and citronellol in sizable proportions. I found Citral Rich lemongrass prone to oxidation, and very corrosive- The workers would complain of burning sensation- and hence shelved it too.

Our trials with Rhodinol Rich lemongrass turned out to be a success- and hence we have developed a curing process, where in we add Rhodinol Rich Lemongrass Oil to an oleo-thermal medium. Perhaps it's the anti- pest and anti-fungal and anti-bacterial properties of Citronellol and Geraniol (collectively called Rhodinol)- which get imbibed into the bamboo fiber that saves the bamboo from attack.

My interest in essential oils is multi-pronged-

a) -as a farmer and a distiller- our main crops are mints and rhodinol rich lemongrass

b) -as a raw material to treat and cure bamboo- bamboo handicrafts are a product of commerce for us.

c) -as a healing agent. Most civilizations have evolved methods of healing- into specialized activities. In India- ayurved is practiced - which uses dried plants- also called crude drugs. Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry are related sciences. The West, especially the Americas, have evolved aromatherapy as a healing procedure. 

In this regard, I found the following write ups on Rhodinol Lemongrass by some renowned names in aromatherapy very interesting.

http://www.aromahead.com/blog/2010/10/08/a-great-gentle-lemongrass-chemotype/

http://www.aromahead.com/blog/2011/07/22/lemongrass-that-does-not-irritate-your-skin-really/

http://www.whitelotusblog.com/2011/04/lemongrasscymbopogon-citratus-essential.html

https://www.aromatics.com/products/essential-oils/lemongrass-rhodinol-rich-india

https://www.facebook.com/aromatherapyoils/posts/136220063090506

Typical GC charts of geranium, rose and rhodinol rich lemongrass oils

  geranium-bourbon geranium-india Rose-Bulgaria Rhodinol lemongrass
citronellol 21.38 23.59 including nerol 38.22 30
citronellyl butyrate 1.26      
citronellyl formate 8.37 4.19    
geraniol 17.45 23 14.41 45
geranyl acetate 0.39 0.29 0.74  
geranyl butyrate 1.04      
geranyl formate 7.55 2.66 0.06  
geranyl tiglate 1.34 1.61    
guaia-6,9-diene 3.9 0.09    
linalool 12.9 16.32 3.14  
menthone 1.5 0.54    
menthone 7.2 0.54    
phenethyl tiglate 0.43 0.77    
rose oxide 0.21 0.11 e 1.39 0.15
    0.74 z 0.32 0.02

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Curing Bamboo

Our attempts to switch over to agroforestry of bamboo to substitute wood for our handicrafts took me to , and Bangalore, where I had the pleasure of meeting some rare breed of "bamboo connoisseurs". The 5 day seminar offered insights into novel methods of bamboo preservation and product development.

To a layman, bamboo epitomizes "a poor mans timber"- an ambivalent "pole"- being utilized in almost all rural activities- may it be construction, fencing, fishing or agriculture.

Why preserve bamboos?
Natural Untreated Bamboos are classified as GRADE 3 timber material. However, when properly treated it turns out be a very fine timber, in ways, stronger than steel and ALL HARDWOODS. In its treated state- Bamboo is classified as GRADE 1 Timber- along with Sagwan and Sal. Thus, treating bamboo becomes a necessity. 

These techniques include non-chemical and chemical methods, some of which I have already discussed in one of my earlier blogs.

Sap Displacement, smoking, white-washing, storage in water.
Chemical treatment methods (CCA), Boric acid / Borax

Treatment in boiling linseed oil / oleo-thermal process-
I am intrigued by the simplicity and functionality of this process. Where-as, other processes may involve a time span of at least a few months, from the time of harvest to a fully dried and treated bamboo, the oil process renders a ready/treated and duly de-hydrated and de-starched bamboo, in a matter of hours!!! I am trying out various combinations- to study the costs involved, as well as to minimize chemical deterioration and the associated fire hazards
.

Would appreciate comments/observations on this method

 

Outer/Exterior Protection

Lacquer vs Varnish- Both lacquer and varnish are used to provide a finish to wooden furniture, but they are different in ingredients and how they are made.
Varnish is made from resins that are mixed with thinners or other solvents to remain liquid. On the other hand, lacquer is made by dissolving cotton and nitrocellulose in solvents.
• Varnish is always transparent, whereas lacquer can be made to give tinted finishes.
• No flattening agent is added in lacquer, whereas varnish can produce semi glossy and even satin finishes because of the presence of flattening agents.
• Lacquer being quick drying, it is applied mostly by spraying whereas varnish is applied using a brush.

Varnish is a resin(natural or synthetic) dissolved in oil and does not contain pigments. It produces hard film. Where as lacquers are quick drying coatings made of nitrocellulose dissolved in solvent with pigment added for color.

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Babool- Gum Arabic Acacia Nilotica Wood for Handicrafts

The Babool or the Indian Gum, Nilotica (linn), Willd ex del is also known as kikar, babur etc. and is indigenous to the Indian Sub-continent. It is found in Deccan and Thar.

A. nilotica is a multipurpose tree. Its timber is valued by rural folks.

Uses

Tooth brushing- The tender twigs are used as a toothbrush (Datun)

Gum arabic- The gum of A. nilotica is also referred to in India as Amaravati gum

Hedges- V. nilotica is thorny and hence makes a good hedge.

Physical Properties of the Wood
The hard wood is heavy and tough. The average weight is about 785 kg/m3 at 12 per cent moisture content. It is somewhat coarse-textured and has interlocked grains. The wood is dull and somewhat rough without any characteristic odour or taste. The strength properties of wood are given below

 

Babool

Teak

  Green Air Dry Green Air Dry
Moisture content per cent 70 12 76.6 12
Static Bending        
(a) Fibre stress at elastic limit (kg/sq cm) 421 487 509 651
(b) Modulus of rupture(kg/cm2) 776 894 841 959
(c) Modulus of elasticity (1000 kg/sq cm) 977 1128 1097 1196
Impact bending        
(a) Fibre stress at elastic limit (kg/sq cm) 1085 1306 1085 1121
(b) Maximum height of drof in impact binding (cm) 130 104 91 71
(c) Modulus of elasticity (kg/sq cm) 108400 140100 160600 166800
Compression parallel to grain (kg/sq cm        
(a) Compressive stress at  207 260 311 376
(b) Maxi. Crushing stress  354 536 415 532
(c) Modulus of elasticity 101800 118000 129800 137400
Compression perpendicular to grain (kg/sq cm)        
(a) Compressive stress at elastic limit  91 124 86 101
Hardness-load in kg to embed 1.128 cm diameter ball to half diameter        
(a) Radial  720 824 557 502
(b) Tangential  755 855 551 524
(c) End  671 915 486 488
Shear paralled to grain (kg/sq cm)        
(a) Radial  119 168 90 97
(b) Tangential  143 192 100 108
Tension perpendicular to grain (kg/sq cm)        
(a) Radial 89 71 68 58
(b) Tangential 107 93 79 66

Working and Finishing Properties
In its green state, It is an easy wood to convert and resaw. However, it becomes harder and tougher when seasoned. It works well by hand machines and finishes to a good surface. Its working quality index based on quality of worked surface and ease of working is 84 compared to 100 for teak.
Timber
The wood is widely used for construction as posts, rafters, beams and in door frames. It is one of the most favoured timbers for all types of agricultural implements like ploughs, harrows, crushers and rice pounders, and is extensively used in card building, for yokes, shafts, wheels and body work. Babul wood is also recommended for certain types of sports and athletic goods like clubs, wall bars, parallel bars, etc..

Fuelwood- and charcoal. Its charcoal is considered to be superior to charcoal from other species.

Resources

http://www.frienvis.nic.in/WriteReadData/UserFiles/file/pdfs/Babul.pdf

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vachellia_nilotica

 

We have found it to be an excellent raw material for various handicrafts

See some of our Babool/Acacia products on OUR EBAY STORE

HTTP://STORES.EBAY.COM/BAMBOOWOODCRAFT USA STORE

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Iron Bamboo Sticks for Filipino Martial Arts

Silat, Kali, Arnis, Eskrima are variations of Stick Fighting Martial Art Form that evolved in Philippines.

Arnis & Eskrima are Spanish words. The term Escrima/ Eskrima, is derived from a Spanish term “esgrima”, meaning ‘fencing’. This art form was more from the central part of the Philippines. Arnis, is derived from a Spanish term  ‘Arnes de mano’ meaning ‘armour of the hands’. It was later shortened to ‘Arnis’. This art form comes from the northern parts of the Philippines. They're Filipino stick fighting mixed with European techniques of sword fighting

Kali is a Silat style, martial art form- and comes from the southern part of the Philippines. The word Kali is Indonesian, derived from the Bahasia dialect, meaning river. As per certain literature- the stick in Kali Stick Fighting, epitomizes the river, continuously flowing, unstoppable, with the ability to consume whatever lays in its path.  Throw a boulder in a river and the water will go under, over, through or around it but it will continue to flow.

For the most part, these are all similar, if not same, martial arts. The masters of these arts influenced each other and thus there are many similarities. The differences usually depend on the instructor.

2017-08-20 20.24.31

We have listed this on ebay-

4421023001 Set of 4 pieces, Iron, Bamboo, Martial, Arts, Escrima, Anis, Kali, Practice, Bo, Staff, Walking, Stick

IRON BAMBOO, is a rare variety of ALMOST FULLY SOLID BAMBOO SPECIES, harder than hardwood. Certain mechanical parameters are comparable to steel. Bamboo has a longer longitudinal fibre- thus does not break easily. It may momentarily yield/bend under extreme pressure, but comes back to its original form- much like an elastic. This helps to reduce the intensity of the impact shock.

EBAY CANADA

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Bamboo as a Crop

Off-late, BAMBOO (Gramineae (Poaceae), subfamily Bambusoideae) has stolen my interest, and I have been collecting commercially viable genotypes. I came across this interesting genotype of Bambusa Balcooa, with almost non-existent inter-nodal cavity ( in the lower 60% of the bamboo- which gradually increased to about 2 to 3 cm in the upper third) . I plan to propagate this particular bamboo for its possible use as a substitute to hardwood for our handicrafts. 

Description
Bamboos are giant woody grasses, with about 1300 species in approx 180 genera. B
ambusoideae are distributed in tropics.

Bamboo plants, usually perennial, consist
of an underground root system and rhizome mat from which culms grow. These (culms) are usually hollow, primarily made of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Diameter of up to 20cm or more has been seen in some species, with a height of 10–40m, which is achieved in about 3–4 months.

Bamboo has long fibre- 1.5 to 3.2mm in length, comprise 60–70 per cent of the culm’s weight, thus a desirable raw material for paper production. Bamboo provides a high biomass yield, is strong and its calorific value is comparable to wood.

Bamboos can be-sympodial or monopodial. The flowering cycle can be anywhere from 15 to 120 years.

Ecological requirements
Most species need warm and humid climates. There are drought-resistant strains, such as Dendrocalamus strictus which can survive on a minimum of 750–1000mm annual precipitation.

Bamboos prefer light, well-drained sandy loams, with abundant organic matter. The optimal soil pH range is between 5 and 6.5.

Propagation
Conventional propagation is done by: seeds or by vegetative methods (
the planting of offsets, culm cuttings or branch cuttings).

Crop management
Planting density tests of Dendrocalamus strictus in India suggest that the high density populations, something like sugarcane, could yield as much as 27t of biomass/ha- measured over 18- month period.

Fertilization- has been shown to lead to an increased number and weight of rhizomes. A nitrogen-rich, fast-release compound fertilizer should be used in the spring, a month before sprouting. Studies in China have concluded that for every 1000kg of bamboo vegetable matter produced, 2.7kg of nitrogen, 3.6kg of potassium and 0.36kg of phosphorus must be added to the soil.
Suggested fertilizer levels for bamboo resulting from tests in India

Fertilizer Amount (kg/ha)
Nitrogen (N)-  100 (kg/ha)
Potassium-  (as K2O) 50 (kg/ha)
Phosphorus - (as P2O5) 50 (kg/ha)

Production, Processing and utilization
Bamboo is harvested manually with knives.

It was previously believed that clear felling was harmful to bamboo stands, but tests in India have shown that clear felling of the stand led to vigorous growth.

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Bambusa Balcooa

One of the species that I have collected in my bambusetum/bambusarium is Bambusa Balcooa, aka Female Bamboo. It is a tropical clumping species of bamboo. It is found in N.E India, Tarai area of Uttar Pradesh etc. Some of the clones are very thick walled.

This bamboo species is often used in scaffolding, for paper pulp or wood chips. It is a popular building material for houses and bridges and on a lesser scale, used for baskets, mats, roofing. Young shoots are eaten and leaves are used as fodder.

The culms of Bambusa Balcooa are about 12-22 m in height, and about 6-15 cm in dia, thick walled ( the cavity is about 30% of the culm). Nodes are thickened with a whitish ring above, and have short small hair below. Internodes are about 20-40 cm long.

Shoots are blackish/green yellow in color. Culm sheaths are brown, sometimes with dark brown hair.

Branches: Several Branches occur from middle of the culm to the top. Branches from the lower nodes are leafless and hard, and sometimes thorn-like.

Leaves: Leaves are narrow and are on average 15-30 cm long and 25-50 mm broad.

Seeds: Gregarious flowering every 35-45 years.

Habitat: Bambusa balcooa grows in tropical monsoon climates.

Mechanical properties: The compressive strength ranges from 39.4 to 50.6 N/mm2 in green and 51.0 to 57.3 N/mm2 in air dry condition. Modulus of rupture varied between 85.0-62.4 N/mm2 in green and 92.6-69.6 N/mm2 in air dry condition. Modulus of elasticity 7.2-10.3 kN/mm2 in green, 9.3-12.7 kN/mm2 in air dry condition (Kabir et al. 1991).

References

Malay, D,Bhattacharya, S, Singh, P, Filgueiras, T S, Pal, A. 2008. Bamboo Taxonomy & Diversity in the Era of Molecular Markers. Advances in Botanical Research 47: 225 – 268.
Guadua Bamboo Costa Rica:
http://www.guaduabamboo.com/bambusa-balcooa.html#ixzz28Oocjo8v\

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Iron Bamboo Processing and Preservation

As a person undertaking agro-forestry of bamboo, we process Iron Bamboo for Handicrafts, Martial Art or Medieval Replica Weapons for Self Defense, which involves specialized methods and techniques of processing and preservation, to increase its durability.

Preservation techniques-

The empirical wisdom or popular knowledge, of indigenous people, peasants, farmers and artisans, has been developed through centuries in all the continents and has resulted in well-known methods and techniques to effectively preserve bamboo. Traditional methods are generally cheaper to implement and can be done without any special equipment.

For proper Preservation of iron bamboo, it must be harvested/cut early mornings, before sunrise, in winters - on a waning moon.** (This is a controversial topic, scientists argue over the truth behind this “peasant knowledge”. Nevertheless, detailed studies show remarkable differences with untreated bamboo, when harvested at specific hours and moon phases. The starch content is lowest between waning gibbous and last quarter between the 6th and 8th day after full moon due to the higher gravitation of the moon. On the basis of photosynthesis, in the course of the morning, bamboo starts transporting starch from the roots into the leaves.

Soaking- After harvest, bamboo is stored in running water for 3-4 weeks to leach out starch.

Chemical Treatments ( any one -to be done immediately after harvesting or after soaking)-

  • CCA (copper-chrome-arsenic composition, in the proportion 3: 1:4) is good for bamboo, but has associated health hazards. Thus, it has to be used judiciously, if at all. Bamboo products are tanalised, impregnated under pressure or boiled with chromated copper arsenate (CCA) to protect against rot. CCA is effective but toxic/carcinogenic.

  • ACA- Ammoniacal copper arsenate penetration in bamboo is effective against fungi, bacteria and insects. However, ACA is eco-toxic non-degradable.

  • CCB and CCBF  - commercially ASCU.

  • Boric acid, borax and boron are cheaper than CCA and less poisonous. This is used at a concentration of  2.5 per cent each, to be dissolved in hot water. The preservative, (disodium octaborate- which forms as a result of the reaction), is easily soluble in water. This process is only recommended for bamboo culms that would not be exposed to water or rain. Boron salts are effective against borers, termites and fungi (except soft rot fungi), and is widely recognized to be environmentally acceptable and safe for the mammals.

  • Other alternatives methods:Treatment of bamboo with limewater.

  • Drying of bamboo before use is necessary since dry bamboo is stronger and less susceptible to biological degradation than moist bamboo. In some experiments carried out it was found that Acetic acid (Vinegar), completely prevented moulds/fungus incidence during the drying process. (Tang et al., 2009).

  • Following the drying, the bamboo is TRADITIONALLY smoked by storing it above a fireplace, to blacken the culm. This, however, may not be necessary if chemical methods are used.

  • Fire Retardant Preservative- This treatment is intended to protect materials against fire as well as decay and insect attack. A mixture of boric acid / copper sulphate / zinc chloride / sodium dichromate in a ratio of 3:1:5:6 is recommended at 25% for indoor and outdoor use

  • For Termites- 1% Dieldrin may be added to the preservative. However, Dieldrin is dangerous, and use is illegal in several countries.

Further information
• Non poisonous Timber Protection Practical Action Technical Brief
• Designing and Building with Bamboo by Jules J. A. Janssen

https://www.guaduabamboo.com/preservation/chemical-bamboo-preservation

https://www.guaduabamboo.com/preservation/durability-of-bamboo

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Iron Bamboo Collectible Police Baton Night Stick

We have listed a set of 4 (Iron Bamboo Collectible Police Baton Night Stick) on ebay for $ 90.

Iron bamboo is a very rare variety of bamboo that is almost solid. Its strength is comparable to steel, and is much stronger than any hardwood. See our post for more details

4421029901 vintage tire thumper mixed lot set of 4-1Tire Thumper-1

http://www.ebay.com/itm/Set-4-Iron-Bamboo-Antique-Tire-Thumper-Vintage-Bat-Collectible-Police-Stick-/253098336228

http://ebay.com/itm/253098336228

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Hardwood Vintage Collapsible Walking Stick

We have just listed Hardwood Vintage Collapsible Walking Stick on ebay. The buying link is as below

http://ebay.com/itm/253089749030

Price: US $24.00

You could also write to us using contact-us link (http://bamboowoodcraft.com/contact-us/) for a direct purchase via PayPal. We are a PayPal verified seller

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