Aromatic Trails in Bamboo Agro-Forestry

With the change of guard, India has recently put bamboo related enterprise, including bamboo agro-forestry systems on the fast track. Rightly so, because Bamboo Plantations are some of the best CO2 sinks. With an exceptional growth rate, and very high timber strength- Bamboo Agroforestry systems offer a short cut to increasing our much needed Forest Cover.

It is needless to stress the importance of forest cover, and its implicit symbiotic relationship with existence of life on our planet. Only source of Oxygen- are green plants. Photosynthesis is a photo-sensitive mechanism where-in, plants consume CO2 to produce sugars, releasing oxygen as a bi-product, into the environment.

CO2 is one of the major green-house gases, responsible for heating the atmosphere and Global Warming. Forests, including bamboo-Agroforestry- thus offer one of the most reliable methods to mitigate, or even reverse this phenomenon.

Please refer to the following links on Global Warming and Role of Forests

I was recently in Talwara (Punjab), and Punjab Agriculture University (Ludhiana, Punjab), to study the gaps and bottle-necks, in the nascent Bamboo Industry in India. Nascent- because, Bamboo, having been recently de-regulated from the forest regime- is now easier to grow, transport and trade- thus offering the potential of developing enterprise to produce value added products of this wonderful resource/raw material.

We had the opportunity of visiting the Unati Cooperative in Talwara. Some wonderful work is being undertaken by Mr. Jyoti Swaroop and his Unati Team- a cooperative in true sense- with altruistic and holistic philosophy. Their work (value added products) on and is worthy of appreciation. Sadly though, their bamboo furniture project has been put on a temporary halt, due to lack of availability of proper raw material.

My second halt was at PAU, where I had the pleasure of meeting Dr. Gurvinder Cheema Sahib. Under his direction, many farmer clusters have been created who are undertaking value addition initiatives and direct marketing. His focus on judiciously selected Alternative crops (of which Medicinal and Aromatic Plants is a subset) -- is worthy of appreciation. He has spent probably 3 decades on development of MAP - his knowledge is encyclopedic - and his experiences are an ocean---we farmers can learn a lot from such a resource person. Indeed kind of Dr. Cheema Sahib to have invited me for a cup of tea-- sweetened with his love, and a bit of his beautifully crafted stevia.

Having travelled in various parts of the country, in relation to bamboo- I notice many bottlenecks and road blocks, that need to be evened out to make this a successful enterprise. Some of the issues (elite planting material, rhizome nursery, 2 year old plants, domestication and hardening issues etc.) I had discussed in one of my previous blogs. Besides above, a farmer needs suitable inter-cropping options, to sustain the first three years, while the bamboo plantation is in the process of establishment.

I have been experimenting with Aromatic Grasses as an inter-crop with Bamboo. Depending on the location, soil, water availability and soil type, a suitable site-specific grass could be judiciously selected, amongst Lemongrass, Gingergrass, Citronella, Palmarosa and Vetiver etc.

For River Protection and Soil-rehabilitation of  effluent inflicted/polluted soils, Vetiver and Bamboo Combination is indeed very successful.

See

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National Bamboo Mission Uttarakhand

Uttarakhand, the land of temples, abode of Lord Shiva and Guru Gobind Singh alike, is now all set to pioneer bamboo agroforestry, due to its unique geographical location, stretches of well drained alluvial soil in the Terai belt and abundance of water- both, ground and rain.

The recently revised bamboo policy, with its de-classification as a timber (erstwhile) to its correct botanical classification of a"Grass", offers a window of opportunity for bamboo based enterprise. Government is thus focusing on developing bamboo based industry clusters, in areas endemic to bamboo, where, Uttarakhand fits the bill very well.

The task may seem Herculean, but it is surely possible to create Bamboo Based Clusters of Industry in the state of Uttarakhand, and to my mind we will need to focus on the following areas.

First, and the foremost is the task of Identification of suitable varieties/genotypes, endemic to our agro-climate, with a sound knowledge of its applications and industrial uses.

Annual Planting Targets and plant production- will need to be variety specific, and Nursery works will need to be synchronized with the planting targets. To my mind, Nursery works will need to precede plantation date, by at least 2 years- AND THAT TOO, within the same agro-climatic zone. Getting Plants from a distance is a messy and cost intensive affair, not to mention the transit damage, and the issue of acclimatization.  Survival rate of rhizomes is lot better than cuttings or TC. We need to ensure that a healthy plant, duly domesticated and hardened,  with good sized rhizome reaches the field. Planting Schedules will need to be optimized- and Nursery production geared up to provide plants at the RIGHT TIME. Many a times we find TC or even VP plants, with just a semblance of a root, brought from cross country ( from another agro-climatic zone, thus neither domesticated or acclimatized, nor hardened ) and planted out in the field, resulting in near total wipe out.

Target planting time should be early spring, where irrigation is available, or onset of monsoons, where it is rain-fed.

For enterprise based cultivation and extension, excellent clones have been developed by FRI and GBPUAT, amongst other regional Institutes. Farmers/growers/Nurserymen must try to procure these elite and young clones (flowering cycles) - namely, Balcooa, Nutaans, Oliverii and Stocksii for the plains and Hamiltonii for the hills. Each of the above elite clones has specific applications, so a judicious selection needs to be done, for choice of planting material.

We will, simultaneously need to set up a pilot unit( s )-  ( both, for agro-forestry as well as value addition endeavors )-Under the helmsman-ship of Forest Research Institute, Dehradun, with regional centers at various state agricultural universities, including GBPUAT- so that farmers get acquainted with bamboo as a crop. Some farmers, who pioneered undertaking bamboo agroforestry earlier, did not have a pleasant experience because of lack of proper markets at that point of time, when bamboo was still a regulated commodity. In light of the de-regulation, and prospects of bamboo industry coming up- we would have to do the confidence building exercise- where FRI, GBPUAT and other Universities/Institutions will need to show the way and bear the Olympian torch- for both aspects of Industry development- agriculture/agro-forestry (the source of raw material) and value-addition (product development and marketing). FRI, GBPUAT and other Universities, will perhaps, need to liaise with lead institutions like NID, IPRITI etc. to evolve suitable products and suitable markets.

Package of Practices - Farmers will need to be educated to produce marketable bamboo- in terms of quality. Thus, training and cultivation of requisite skill sets amongst farmers is of imminence. Color Coding, Pruning, Fire Protection etc. are some of the ethics that will need to be included in any protocol of package of practices for bamboo agro-forestry 

Maybe, a buy-back rate could also be fixed to build up confidence of the farmers.

Identification of Target Industries- Identification of variety specific applications, will need to be done. Dialogue with target industries will need to be initiated, inviting them to set up shop close to the source, once critical mass in terms of acreage is created.

We will need to research bamboo utilization in paper industry, and work on developing linkages between farmers and the paper units ( for example Century in Lal Kuan). I believe, bamboo requires a different production line, so Century will only do so, if it is assured of sustainable supply of bamboo.

There are pockets of Bengali and Bihari immigrants /migrants in Uttarakhand, where weaving clusters could be developed. The native art of weaving existed, but died a natural death because of paucity of bamboo, due to forest restrictions. In light of the revision of Bamboo Policy, there is every likelihood of bamboo being available. We will probably need to establish weavers clusters and nurture them, till they can sustain themselves. Nutaans is specifically suited for basketry and mat making.

Construction industry- Fully solid or thick walled species have a great utilization in the construction industry- may it be the scaffolding, or cheap housing. Balcooa and Lower part of Nutaans fit the bill.

Hand Made Paper could also be made.

Furniture- Industry- requires specialty bamboo- and Uttarakhand could follow suit. Oliverii and stocksii are very suitable for this application.

Energy and Charcoal- I have been following this topic but I gather bamboo based ethanol or bamboo based briquettes are not economical, as compared to other sources of fuel. Hopefully I am wrong !!!!!

Stick making for Agarbatti (  Incense Sticks) Industry - This avenue needs to be researched deeply. Nutaans and Tulda are very suitable for this segment.

Logistics-paperwork for Inter-state movement of bamboo- There is still a lot of confusion amongst farmers, with regards to inter-state transportation of bamboo. Though, its been reiterated , post de-regulation, that the "permit-regime" has been archived, but there are still loop-holes, probably because of lack of understanding of the ordinance, or else, lack of will for proper implementation.

Farmers undertaking bamboo as a crop- would need to have it duly registered in their land records (khasra). This document is said to be a valid proof of origin of bamboo on private land.

To encourage extension and emergence of bamboo based enterprise, the Government could relax the Land Ceiling Slabs for bamboo agroforestry. It could be on the lines of the Tea Industry- where land is attached to the production Unit, and the ceiling is lifted. Its classified as an Industry. A similar scheme could be devised to encourage bamboo entrepreneurship.  

A collective effort is imminent to make this Bamboo Mission a reality.

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Bamboo Propagation

India has about 1200 odd bamboo species- out of which the commercially important ones have been prioritized by the Government, under the National Bamboo Mission.

As a farmer and a bamboo-entrepreneur based in Uttarakhand, totally solid species, also called the Iron bamboo are of special interest.

Currently nursery works are underway - to cater to our planting targets of next year.

Bamboo Multiplication is primarily done by rhizomes, Old bamboo plant is dug out, the culms separated with a bit of root-stock in each, which are then planted out.

This year- we have made our own nurseries using the rhizome method of the following species

  • Thick walled Bambusa Balcooa- with about a hole of about 1 cm dia
  • Thick Walled Nutaans- with about 1 cm hole
  • TOTALLY SOLID NUTAANS-- 2 stains
  • TOTALLY SOLID STOCKSII- 3 stains
  • Oliverii
  • Guadua ( experimental)

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Bambus Gehstock Wanderstock Spazierstock Knuppel

Kürzlich hatten wir einen Bambusbaumschulspezialisten, Mr. Abhijeet, der uns von Agartala, Tripura aus besuchte. Er ist spezialisiert auf Oliveri Bamboo (Ein Eisen Bambus) und wir wurden gute Freunde. Wir hatten viel zu besprechen - in Bezug auf diesen seltenen Eisen-Bambus, seine Vermehrungstechniken und Anwendungen für die Herstellung von Gehstöcken und Wanderstöcken für den internationalen Markt

 

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Iron Bamboo ist ein ausgezeichnetes Material, um Wanderstöcke und Spazierstöcke herzustellen. Europäer und Amerikaner lieben Iron Bamboo für ihre Spazierstöcke (bambus gehstock wanderstock knuppel) .

Diese seltene Art, die auch Calcutta Bamboo genannt wird, ist fast vollständig solide und dennoch flexibel genug, um sich als Rohmaterial für handgefertigte Canes, Bo Staff, Escrima und Kali Sticks zu empfehlen.

Dr. Salil Tewari, ein Agronom und Bambusexperte von internationalem Ruf, derzeit ein Senior Professor at GBPUAT, besucht kürzlich auch unser Bambusetum. Wir haben Bambus seit einigen Jahren als Rohstoff und als Rohmaterial studiert, seit Shisham (Indischer Palisander) auf der C.I.T.E.S. Liste stand. Wir haben schließlich 4 Genotypen von Bambus domestiziert und in die engere Auswahl genommen, darunter 2 der Eisenbambusarten, die wir für Terai-Bedingungen als geeignet befunden haben.

Dr. Salil Tewari ist ein Ozean des Wissens. Ich war damit beschäftigt, Dr. Tewaris Weisheiten zu sammeln, um zu lernen, wie man die Bambusmission in Uttarakhand in den Griff bekommt. Er war glücklich, Stocksii und Oliverii Bambuspflanzen (Iron Bamboo Species) zu sehen, die in Terai domestiziert waren und in unserem Bambushaus gut abschnitten. Wir diskutierten den Abstand, kulturelle Praktiken und vegetative Vermehrungstechniken für die Entwicklung dieser seltenen Sorten.

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http://bamboowoodcraft.com/products/bambus-wanderstock-gehstock-spazierstock-schlagstock/

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Iron Bamboo Walking Sticks and Hiking Canes

Recently, we had a Bamboo Nursery-Specialist, Mr. Abhijeet-visiting us from Agartala, Tripura. He specializes in raising Oliveri Bamboo (An iron Bamboo) and we became good friends.. We had a lot to discuss- regarding this rare iron bamboo, its propagation techniques, and applications for crafting Walking Sticks and Hiking Canes for the international market

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Iron Bamboo is an excellent material to craft Hiking Sticks and Walking Canes. Europeans and Americans alike, love Iron Bamboo, for their Walking Sticks and Canes (Wanderstock and Spazierstock).

Also called The Calcutta Bamboo, this rare species is almost fully solid, yet has a degree of flexibility, thereby qualifying to be one of the best choices, as a raw material for handcrafted Canes, Bo Staff, Escrima and Kali Sticks.

, an agronomist and a bamboo expert of International repute, currently a Senior Professor at GBPUAT, also visit our Bambusetum recently. We have been studying Bamboo as a crop, as well as a raw material for the last few years, ever since Shisham (Indian Rosewood) figured on the C.I.T.E.S list. We have eventually domesticated and short-listed 4 genotypes of bamboo, including 2 of the iron bamboo species- which we have found to be suitable for Terai conditions.

is an ocean of knowledge. I was busy gathering Dr. Tewari's  pearls of wisdom, in terms of learning to spear-head the bamboo mission in Uttarakhand. He was happy to see Stocksii and Oliverii bamboo plants   (Iron Bamboo Species)  domesticated in Terai and performing well in our bambusetum. We discussed the spacing, cultural practices and vegetative propagation techniques for development of these rare varieties.

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Iron Bamboo Products- on Ebay and Amazon March 2018

 Over the last 2 -3 years I have been collecting varieties/genotypes of FULLY SOLID BAMBOO ( also called IRON BAMBOO, due to its IRON LIKE STRENGTH) and I have successfully established a nucleus plot of commercially important species.

This year, during the rains we will be undertaking to plant about 8 to 10 acres of this rare Iron Bamboo.

Our Iron Bamboo is an excellent raw material for all kinds of walking sticks, canes, Hiking and Trekking Poles etc.

  Visit our Amazon Shop or Our Ebay Store to buy our Iron Bamboo Walking Sticks, Canes and other products of handicrafts.

http://stores.ebay.com/bamboowoodcraft

http://www.amazon.com/shops/bamboowoodcraft-com

For Wholesale inquiries write to us or call us

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Iron Bamboo Nurseries- Guroo Farms

Due to a proposed restriction on export of Shisham, we have, over the last 2 years, established an experimental Bambusetum, of about 8 bamboo species, including 2 of the rare Iron Bamboo varieties, namely, Dendrocalamus Stocksii and Thyrostachys Oliverii at Guroo Farms in the Terai Belt of Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh, India. Besides the afore-mentioned Iron Bamboos, we also have planted Nutaans and Balcooa, both being loosely clumped, thick walled and with straight growing habits.

Further, I would like to thank our Prime Minister, Mr. Modi to have taken the initiative of having Bamboo de-listed as a forest-produce, thereby facilitating ease of trade, and thus giving an impetus to bamboo agro forestry systems. We, as a Sovereign Nation have been sleeping over the error of classification which has resulted in bamboo not having been exploited to its optimum potential. Thus, China is way ahead of us, despite the fact that we, as a country, have a considerable bamboo stand in our forests, and also have agro-climatic zones that support bamboo agro-forestry systems. Botanically, bamboo is a grass and not a tree- an anomaly that should have been sorted out, way back.

I am trying to locate a reliable source of Guadua Bamboo, which is said to be an excellent species for Terai. It is one of the toughest TIMBER BAMBOO, ideal for construction.

My aim is to get about 10 to 15 acres under bamboo cultivation over the next 2 to 3 years.

Another issue that plagues my mind is the choice of the under-story crop for the first 2 years, till the bamboo stand establishes fully.

Does Turmeric fit the bill??

 

References

http://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/india-opposes-cites-move-to-regulate-trade-in-all-species-of-dalbergia-56884

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dalbergia_sissoo

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Lemongrass Rhodinol for Bacteria and Fungus

Rhodinol is a term used to describe Citronellol and Geraniol- when they exist together. There are quite a few essential oils which contain rhodinol.

Essential Oils of Geranium, Rose, and a revolutionary new genotype of Lemongrass- are some of the examples- see the table below for a typical GC.

As a grower of bamboo, as well as essential oil crops- I, accidentally discovered an interesting application of rhodinol lemongrass for treating bamboo to protect it against pathogens and fungus, besides imparting a beautiful rosy aromatic note to our bamboo products.

Last few years, I have been experimenting with various oils- I found Oils of Rose and Geranium too expensive for my applications- though they also contain geraniol and citronellol in sizable proportions. I found Citral Rich lemongrass prone to oxidation, and very corrosive- The workers would complain of burning sensation- and hence shelved it too.

Our trials with Rhodinol Rich lemongrass turned out to be a success- and hence we have developed a curing process, where in we add Rhodinol Rich Lemongrass Oil to an oleo-thermal medium. Perhaps it's the anti- pest and anti-fungal and anti-bacterial properties of Citronellol and Geraniol (collectively called Rhodinol)- which get imbibed into the bamboo fiber that saves the bamboo from attack.

My interest in essential oils is multi-pronged-

a) -as a farmer and a distiller- our main crops are mints and rhodinol rich lemongrass

b) -as a raw material to treat and cure bamboo- bamboo handicrafts are a product of commerce for us.

c) -as a healing agent. Most civilizations have evolved methods of healing- into specialized activities. In India- ayurved is practiced - which uses dried plants- also called crude drugs. Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry are related sciences. The West, especially the Americas, have evolved aromatherapy as a healing procedure. 

In this regard, I found the following write ups on Rhodinol Lemongrass by some renowned names in aromatherapy very interesting.

http://www.aromahead.com/blog/2010/10/08/a-great-gentle-lemongrass-chemotype/

http://www.aromahead.com/blog/2011/07/22/lemongrass-that-does-not-irritate-your-skin-really/

http://www.whitelotusblog.com/2011/04/lemongrasscymbopogon-citratus-essential.html

https://www.aromatics.com/products/essential-oils/lemongrass-rhodinol-rich-india

https://www.facebook.com/aromatherapyoils/posts/136220063090506

Typical GC charts of geranium, rose and rhodinol rich lemongrass oils

  geranium-bourbon geranium-india Rose-Bulgaria Rhodinol lemongrass
citronellol 21.38 23.59 including nerol 38.22 30
citronellyl butyrate 1.26      
citronellyl formate 8.37 4.19    
geraniol 17.45 23 14.41 45
geranyl acetate 0.39 0.29 0.74  
geranyl butyrate 1.04      
geranyl formate 7.55 2.66 0.06  
geranyl tiglate 1.34 1.61    
guaia-6,9-diene 3.9 0.09    
linalool 12.9 16.32 3.14  
menthone 1.5 0.54    
menthone 7.2 0.54    
phenethyl tiglate 0.43 0.77    
rose oxide 0.21 0.11 e 1.39 0.15
    0.74 z 0.32 0.02

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Curing Bamboo

Our attempts to switch over to agroforestry of bamboo to substitute wood for our handicrafts took me to , and Bangalore, where I had the pleasure of meeting some rare breed of "bamboo connoisseurs". The 5 day seminar offered insights into novel methods of bamboo preservation and product development.

To a layman, bamboo epitomizes "a poor mans timber"- an ambivalent "pole"- being utilized in almost all rural activities- may it be construction, fencing, fishing or agriculture.

Why preserve bamboos?
Natural Untreated Bamboos are classified as GRADE 3 timber material. However, when properly treated it turns out be a very fine timber, in ways, stronger than steel and ALL HARDWOODS. In its treated state- Bamboo is classified as GRADE 1 Timber- along with Sagwan and Sal. Thus, treating bamboo becomes a necessity. 

These techniques include non-chemical and chemical methods, some of which I have already discussed in one of my earlier blogs.

Sap Displacement, smoking, white-washing, storage in water.
Chemical treatment methods (CCA), Boric acid / Borax

Treatment in heated oil / oleo-heat-
I am intrigued by the simplicity and functionality of this process. Where-as, other processes may involve a time span of at least a few months, from the time of harvest to a fully dried and treated bamboo, the oil process renders a ready/treated and duly de-hydrated and de-starched bamboo, in a matter of hours!!! I am trying out various combinations- to study the costs involved, as well as to minimize chemical deterioration and the associated fire hazards
.

Would appreciate comments/observations on this method . 

Outer/Exterior Protection

Lacquer vs Varnish- Both lacquer and varnish are used to provide a finish to wooden furniture, but they are different in ingredients and how they are made.
Varnish is made from resins that are mixed with thinners or other solvents to remain liquid. On the other hand, lacquer is made by dissolving cotton and nitrocellulose in solvents.
• Varnish is always transparent, whereas lacquer can be made to give tinted finishes.
• No flattening agent is added in lacquer, whereas varnish can produce semi glossy and even satin finishes because of the presence of flattening agents.
• Lacquer being quick drying, it is applied mostly by spraying whereas varnish is applied using a brush.

Varnish is a resin(natural or synthetic) dissolved in oil and does not contain pigments. It produces hard film. Where as lacquers are quick drying coatings made of nitrocellulose dissolved in solvent with pigment added for color.

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Babool- Gum Arabic Acacia Nilotica Wood for Handicrafts

The Babool or the Indian Gum, Nilotica (linn), Willd ex del is also known as kikar, babur etc. and is indigenous to the Indian Sub-continent. It is found in Deccan and Thar.

A. nilotica is a multipurpose tree. Its timber is valued by rural folks.

Uses

Tooth brushing- The tender twigs are used as a toothbrush (Datun)

Gum arabic- The gum of A. nilotica is also referred to in India as Amaravati gum

Hedges- V. nilotica is thorny and hence makes a good hedge.

Physical Properties of the Wood
The hard wood is heavy and tough. The average weight is about 785 kg/m3 at 12 per cent moisture content. It is somewhat coarse-textured and has interlocked grains. The wood is dull and somewhat rough without any characteristic odour or taste. The strength properties of wood are given below

 

Babool

Teak

  Green Air Dry Green Air Dry
Moisture content per cent 70 12 76.6 12
Static Bending        
(a) Fibre stress at elastic limit (kg/sq cm) 421 487 509 651
(b) Modulus of rupture(kg/cm2) 776 894 841 959
(c) Modulus of elasticity (1000 kg/sq cm) 977 1128 1097 1196
Impact bending        
(a) Fibre stress at elastic limit (kg/sq cm) 1085 1306 1085 1121
(b) Maximum height of drof in impact binding (cm) 130 104 91 71
(c) Modulus of elasticity (kg/sq cm) 108400 140100 160600 166800
Compression parallel to grain (kg/sq cm        
(a) Compressive stress at  207 260 311 376
(b) Maxi. Crushing stress  354 536 415 532
(c) Modulus of elasticity 101800 118000 129800 137400
Compression perpendicular to grain (kg/sq cm)        
(a) Compressive stress at elastic limit  91 124 86 101
Hardness-load in kg to embed 1.128 cm diameter ball to half diameter        
(a) Radial  720 824 557 502
(b) Tangential  755 855 551 524
(c) End  671 915 486 488
Shear paralled to grain (kg/sq cm)        
(a) Radial  119 168 90 97
(b) Tangential  143 192 100 108
Tension perpendicular to grain (kg/sq cm)        
(a) Radial 89 71 68 58
(b) Tangential 107 93 79 66

Working and Finishing Properties
In its green state, It is an easy wood to convert and resaw. However, it becomes harder and tougher when seasoned. It works well by hand machines and finishes to a good surface. Its working quality index based on quality of worked surface and ease of working is 84 compared to 100 for teak.
Timber
The wood is widely used for construction as posts, rafters, beams and in door frames. It is one of the most favoured timbers for all types of agricultural implements like ploughs, harrows, crushers and rice pounders, and is extensively used in card building, for yokes, shafts, wheels and body work. Babul wood is also recommended for certain types of sports and athletic goods like clubs, wall bars, parallel bars, etc..

Fuelwood- and charcoal. Its charcoal is considered to be superior to charcoal from other species.

Resources

http://www.frienvis.nic.in/WriteReadData/UserFiles/file/pdfs/Babul.pdf

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vachellia_nilotica

 

We have found it to be an excellent raw material for various handicrafts

See some of our Babool/Acacia products on OUR EBAY STORE

HTTP://STORES.EBAY.COM/BAMBOOWOODCRAFT USA STORE

HTTP://STORES.EBAY.CA/BAMBOOWOODCRAFT CANADA STORE

HTTP://STORES.EBAY.COM.AU/BAMBOOWOODCRAFT AUSTRALIA STORE

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